THE GLOBAL CHALLENGE OF DIABETES MELLITUS Harvard Case Solution & Analysis

wThe Global Challenge of Diabetes Mellitus Case Study Solution

Introduction

One of the common diseases is diabetes which is caused due to high blood glucose or high blood sugar. In the year 2015, around 30.5 million of the people had been affected by diabetes in the United States which is around 9.4% of the entire population. In that population, around ¼ did not even have theidea that they had diabetes.

Generally, there are two main types of diabetes,Diabetes type I and diabetes types II. The first type of diabetes type I is caused by the lack of insulin in the body. This causes the immune system to weaken and further the cells are attacked in the pancreas. The type I diabetes is diagnosed mostly in children and also in young adults. This disease could occur at any age and for people to fight back against the disease they need to take insulin almost every day in order to stay alive.

There are also other forms of diabetes such as gestational diabetes, monogenic diabetes and cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. The gestational diabetes is another common type of diabetes which is usually caused by pregnant women. Gestational diabetes also causes high sugar level which is considered harmful for the baby’s health and woman’s health as well. However, there is a good news about this diabetes as it could be controlled by eating healthy food, exercising daily and also there are medications which could help in controlling the disease. Once the pregnant woman delivers the baby, the blood sugar of the woman returns to normal, however, the woman are still at risk for getting diabetes type II.

The other two monogenic diabetes and cystic fibrosis-related diabetes are rare and are also caused by high sugar. The main types of diabetes which would be discussed in this narrative review is the diabetes mellitus type II. The diabetes mellitus type II is caused when the body does not produce enough for making the immune system stronger and also the cells are unable to reach the insulin. Around 90% of the entire population in the world affected by the diabetes is affected by the diabetes mellitus type II. People who are affected by the diabetes are engaged in healthy eating, exercise and observing the high glucose level.

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Generally, the people who are most at risk of developing diabetes are the obese and overweight people since the obese and overweight people have high fat which causes the immune system to weaken. The diabetes mellitus type II is a progressive disease which keeps on worsening if obese and overweight people eat mostly junk food and are physically inactive.

Disease Presentation

The diabetes mellitus type II is caused when the body does not produce insulin. This occurs when the pancreas stop producing insulin in the body which weakens the immune system. Also, the high sugar level or high glucose levels cause the disease to develop. It is still not clear whether this is caused due to genetics such as family medical conditions or due to environmental factors. However, it is found out that the majority of obese or overweight people are affected by Mellitus type II diabetes.

Insulin is one of the hormones which is produced in the pancreas and is further released into the bloodstream. Insulin circulates in the blood which helps in controlling the sugar levels through entering the cells. The purpose of insulin is to lower the sugar level and once the sugar level is lowered, the emission of insulin from pancreas also drops.

Glucose is referred to sugar that contributes a high source of energy for the muscles and other tissues. Glucose comes from two major sources first is the liver and second is the food we eat. Sugar is absorbed and stored in the pancreas and with the help of insulin is produced in the bloodstream. If the glucose level is low which is caused by low consumption of food, the liver would produce the stored glycogen keeping within a normal range of glucose level.

The high blood sugar is caused when the process of glucose and insulin is not working well. The cells of insulin produce high insulin in the bloodstream and the insulin is unable to meet the demand of the body which causes diabetes mellitus type II. The difference between diabetes mellitus type II and type I is that in type I, the immune system attacks the cells leaving the entire body with either no or little insulin whereas type II is not caused by immune system attack rather it is caused by body responding less to insulin.

The symptoms which are caused by diabetes mellitus type II related to the high blood level are weight loss, infections to yeast or fungal infection and excessive urination. The high blood could also lead life-threatening experiences such as hyper solar syndrome caused by dehydration. The first normal symptoms which are shown in diabetes mellitus type II are dehydration following by other symptoms such as confusion, nausea, body weakness and could sometimes even lead to coma and seizure..................

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