Compound Living-Mixed Methods of Expatriate’s Experiences in Saudi Arabia Harvard Case Solution & Analysis


This report is based upon the experiences of expatriates in Saudi Arabia. The research questions that are developed and analyzed in this report include the examination of job embeddedness, assessment of domain of scale research model, investigation of expatriate’s residents’ interaction ability with the culture of Saudi Arabia and investigation of the relationship between cultural intelligence and expatriate’s adjustment in Saudi Arabia. Initially, a vast literature is reviewed, then data is collected for analysis via distribution of questionnaires, measures are defined, analysis is conducted and finally, the findings are stated in the report.

Keywords:  Job embeddedness, cultural intelligence, expatriates

Theoretical Background

Intercultural Adjustment Theory

The phrase ‘expatriate adjustment’ is connected with acculturation, cross-cultural adaptation and international adjustment, and relates to expatriate psychological comfort and familiarity with various foreign environmental elements (Black, 1989). (Takeuchi, 2005)refers to the amount of ease or trouble that expatriates experience with life or employment matters in a host nation. Expatriate adjustment is connected with the process of uncertainty reduction and change through a sense of harmony and comfort with the new environment (Black J. G., 1992). Those expatriates who are open to the new culture can become culturally adjusted and able to accept new behaviours, customs and rules (Caligiuri, 2012). Conversely, expatriates who do not adapt well are likely to experience worry in relation to the new culture, and may even believe that the locals are aiming to make life more difficult for them (DavidRichards, 1996). Expatriates who show constrained adaptation to the new culture experience negative results related to work, including lower levels of job fulfilment and work performance (Naumann, 1993).

Compound Living-Mixed Methods of Expatriate’s Experiences in Saudi Arabia Harvard Case Solution & Analysis

The application of expatriate adjustment assumes different models which are explained by various scholars in describing the different phenomena. Some of the significant examples of such events include the Parker and (M.McEvoy, 1993)models. There exist varying viewpoints which may broadly be categorized as cognitive, behavioural or even psychodynamics. Some of these factors are likely to affect the interplay.

The physical behaviour, according to the viewpoint of behavioural studies will influences how individuals conduct themselves (Russell, 2011). A person must efficiently discover new kinds of personal reinforcement, which may have an influence on their behaviour over a period. Besides, coming up with a reward system will influence a person’s premorbid levels.

The definite of adjustment, as described by (Livneh, 1990)may be defined as a process which may achieve a psychological and a social outcome. A change, as explained by psychology would openly involve the process of having a greater sense of openness in order to have a more significant experience, a higher level of self-esteem, self-acceptance and even the ability to cope with difficulties. On the other hand, an adjustment within a social setting would define the ability of an individual to move efficiently from a system of social isolation to having the ability to collaborate with others. The reflection of personal values, however, is constituted by a minimal psychological adjustment (Russell, 2011). The change may always be looked at from the viewpoint of a culturally acceptable ideology.

In explaining an adjustment across various cultures, several theories and another related piece of work has been developed.  Some of the majorly applied models and contributions by scholars are as discussed below..............

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