Modernization Theory V/S Dependency Theory Harvard Case Solution & Analysis

Modernization Theory V/S Dependency Theory Case Study Solution

Indeed, the modernization process also acts as one of the major cause of increased population in the underdeveloped nations. Although, modernization leads the countries to step into their development process through the introduction of advanced technologies, the increased relations with their countries of the world, but, as stated above, the underdeveloped nations do not have potential resources to deal with the increased population due to the process of modernization. These countries do not have substantial environmental; laws or authorities that could regulate the environmental pollution in these countries.

The Dependency Theory discusses the fact that the underdeveloped nations provide resources to the developed nations that the developed countries utilize to maintain their dominance in their world. Dependency theory advocates that the underdeveloped nations are the one that provide resources i.e. cheap labour, agricultural resources etc. to the developed countries that are utilized by the developed countries in maintaining their dominance and the power in the world economy. This resources flow from the underdeveloped nations to the developed countries enriches the already developed countries and leads the underdeveloped countries to continue suffering. Underdeveloped nations not online provides the potential resources of production for the developed nations but these countries also act as potential markets for the industries in the developed countries. The developed nations, on the other hand increased the dependence of the underdeveloped nations by exerting political and economic pressures through their dominance in the world. The theory argues that the major reason behind that  the underdeveloped countries are not tracked on the development path is that they holds a dependency position in the whole world system where they are tends to kept under dominance which ultimately resist their development. (Ferraro, 1996)

There are various pros and cons of the Dependency Theory including; the analysis of the inequality between the rich and the poor countries, breakdown of political bonds, dismissing the claims of the neoclassical theorists about the role of the underdeveloped countries in promoting the inequality in the country, no explanation of the factors that leads to underdevelopment of the underdeveloped countries etc. (Effiom, 2016)

One of the major advantages of the dependency theory is that it provides the way to analyse the current status of the developed and the underdeveloped countries and the role of each country in bringing the inequalities in the world. The theory focuses at the development of that part of the world that is mostly ignored due to the dominance of the developed nations in the world.

Another major advantage of the Dependency Theory is the dismissal of the claims of the neo-classical theorists about the role of the underdeveloped countries in promoting the inequalities in the world. Neo-classical theorists have a perspective that the major cause of the inequality in the world is the incompetency of the underdeveloped nations in making efforts for development. However, the dependency theory states that the inequality among the nations of the world is due to the current world system in which underdeveloped countries provide resources to developed countries and get the obsolete technologies in return which do not contribute in increasing their social status in the world.

With its numerous advantages, Dependency theory has certain disadvantages. The theory does not explain the factors that leads to the underdevelopment of the nations. It only argues about the role played by the developed countries in maintaining their dominance in the world by resisting the development in the underdeveloped countries.

Along with it, the Dependency Theory under the Dependency Theory, the underdeveloped nations provide the resources in form of cheap labour, materials etc. in exchange of the obsolete technology which in turns does not provide any substantial improvement in the competency of the products of offered by these underdeveloped nations in the international markets. This ultimately led to the continuous underdevelopment of these nations.

Although, the Modernization Theory and the Dependency Theory argues about the development of the underdeveloped nations but still there are certain similarities and dissimilarities that could be quoted to find out the clear concept of each of the theory.

Both of the development theories are similar in many ways. Both of the theories pay a lot of attention to the gaps between the developed and the underdeveloped countries. Moreover, the two theories consider the Western countries to be the developed nations of the world and having a large impact of the world economics. Along with it, the theories argue that the interaction between the developed and the third world countries constantly increase with the developed nations playing a vital role in development of the entire nations of the world. Moreover, the two theories ignore the possibility of other ways of development for underdeveloped countries.

There is certain dissimilarities between the two theories of development as the Dependency Theory was stated in the critics of the Modernization Theory. The Modernization theory examines the development of the world and the bond between the developed and underdeveloped nations to be equal while the Dependency theory examines that the relationships between underdeveloped and the developed nations is based on the dependence of the underdeveloped countries over the developed nations. Moreover, Modernization theory argues that Western countries are the most developed countries in the world with the most successful path of development. On the other hand, Dependency theory argues that although, Western countries are the most developed countries in the world but their development path could not be considered to be the most successful path of development. Along with it, the Modernization Theory argues that the underdeveloped countries should follow the western way of development as it is the most successful way. However, the Dependency Theory argues that the underdeveloped countries are forced to follow the way of western countries   to avoid isolation. The Modernization Theory promotes cooperation among the developed and the underdeveloped countries to pave the way for the development of underdeveloped countries while the Dependency Theory promotes independence of underdeveloped countries from the political and economic pressures of the developed nations to get their selves on the path of development.(Murabuka, 2017)

On the basis of the above analysis of both of the theories of development it could be said that the Modernization Theory reflects the contemporary situation of the world in much better way than the Dependency Theory. In current scenario of the world, developed nations provide certain technologies to enable the underdeveloped nations to change their political and economic structure. It could be seen from the example of the Indian economy that has become a developing nation through following the development path of the world’s developed nations and through the support of the developed countries i.e. the US.

Although, the two theories argue about the development of the underdeveloped nations but both if the theories are different in many ways. Under both of the theories, the role of developed countries in the development of underdeveloped nations is considered to be high. Moreover, from both of the theories Modernization Theory reflects the contemporary situation of the world in a much better way………..

 

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