REPORT ON MOTIVATION Harvard Case Solution & Analysis

Report on Motivation

What would you do to motivate your direct reports when you cannot provide them with a bonus or extra-money?

Analysis of theories

Motivation is a unique factor that exists in every person and it is the only factor, which engages a person to do something. It is a very important thing for a person or an organization as organizations are based on the people that work for the organization and if an organization carries demotivated people the organization will go down.

The theories which are under the analysis of this report are as follows.

• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
• McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
• Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
• McClelland’s Theory of Needs
1- Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory

According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory is common in every person and the level of needs is also the same for every person. He states that every person is satisfied according to the levels and only when the first level of need is satisfied only then a person wants to move to the next level of need.

The level of needs starts from Physiological needs, which are the basic necessities of a person such as food and shelter next is the need for Safety which is means safety of life and security at job or work. The next level of need is the social need for a person which means relations and interactions at the work place.

The higher level of need is the need for esteem, which means to be respected at the work place and recognition at work. The highest level of need is the need for self-actualization, which according to Maslow is a need that can never be fully achieved and a person will always stay motivated for growth and success.

The assumptions taken by Maslow are not realistic, according to Maslow for everyone the levels will remain the same and all will follow the same pattern which is unrealistic. The need for self-actualization is also unrealistic as a person will move to something else and a single thing cannot keep someone satisfied forever as Maslow says that this need can never be fulfilled.

2- McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y

According to McGregor there are no levels of satisfaction or he does not consider that motivation can be increased or decreased as he provided with two different methods of management, which are theory X and theory Y.

Theory X managers are the ones that believe that all the employees dislikes work and wants to avoid it as much as they can. The employees are needed to be controlled and threatened otherwise the employees will not work. The employees are dependent on the managers and are always looking for the directions and cannot work independently. The employees are not ambitious and do not desire to do anything new.

Theory Y managers are the ones who believe that their employees will work and they will work not because of any threat or pressure however, they will work because work is as natural as rest or play. Employees like to direct themselves on their own and will avoid waiting for directions to come and then they will work. Employees want to work and they are also work seekers and the employees are ambitious and are capable of innovation as well.

The two management theories are absolutely different from each other as in one style employees are avoiding to work but in other the employees wants to work on their own......................

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