Literature Review Harvard Case Solution & Analysis

Literature Review Case Study Solution

Cultural Diversity

Organizations cultivating the diversity virtues have been predisposing for the purposed of better integrating the comprehensive labor market dynamics dominating via increasing multicultural & multi ethnic market force (Verma, 1996). The management of the diversity at workplace has become a significantly imperative problem for private & government’s entrepreneur for private & public organizations. The proactive strategy for managing diversity in workforce tends to steadily replace the reactive approaches.

The mode created in 1970 by Hofstede have become a foundation for cross-cultural study which have provided extensively popular techniques for the research of differences in culture in a extensive disciplines range such as international management (Hofstede, 2011). It appears to be an established phenomenon that has pointed the cross-cultural literature robustness. Thus, there are many investigators who are discussing over the hypothetical perspective exerting the advantages of diversity in culture (Mejia, 1999) by emphasizing that the diversity might be creating decline & dissatisfaction in the performance of business. It has been posted by classic studies that by effectively managing cultural diversity of business, it would provide number of benefits. If the cultural diversity is being mismanaged, it would become a basis of negative influence; the reason is people feeling endangered and threatened because of working with employees with diverse sex, age or cultural background. Thus, the diffidence and lack of self confidence would last negative impact on the performance & productivity of company as a whole in long run. Therefore, it is significant for the managers identifying the cultural specificity for the group in order to better understand the technique for solving problem.

A disfranchised & vulnerable group highly affected by the ethical, cultural & diversity issues. The group includes employees, local populous, community & individual. The way employees or individual would greatly affected includes lowered motivation or morale, drop in productivity, low performance, & employee attrition. On the other h&, local populous or community would distressed from lack of resource.

One of the important issue to be discussed is in-group favoritism which is a social identity theory that has been suggested by showing in-group favoritism that the people can attain positive self-image (Goethals, 1987). Various researches have revealed that the in-group favoritism is not supposed to be occurring under conditions making it harder for the employees boosting their self-evaluation. For instance: in the aspect of threat information regarding in-group (e.g. balancing reaction about the group performance), people have exhibiting less in-group partiality as compared to the lack of such information (Luhtanen, 1990).

The organizational ethics is a broader concept including not only trust & culture but also outcomes, processes, denotes & character, it acts a pumping blood that per fused the entire business with the shared set of values & common sense of purpose. The ethics process most likely serves as a mechanism for the company addressing ethical concerns such as business, financial, relationship & management decisions.

The action plan for the ethical issues in an organization includes ethics & compliance programs, which has been designed with the intent of preventing the unlawful conduct as well as promoting conformity with regulation that have been externally imposed, not only this but it would provide a second component of background for ethics in organization. The compliance program have been amplified enormously in 1991 in order to create the sentencing consistency in federal courts. It can be used by organizations having ethical issues. Ethics program can be used in order to pursue virtue, focus on organizational values, whereas compliance program can be used in order to focus on obedience to required & legal performance detail & having enforcement capability.

There are many leaders in organization who have been viewed compliance program as more vehicle for the protecting themselves despite than as a means for instilling important ethical values.

In my viewpoint, the factors responsible to last inevitable impact on the performance of the company includes lack of ethical leadership. The bad behavior or immoral conduct most likely pushes the organization increasingly difficult to gain water rights. It has also resulted in decreased job satisfaction. If the company hire new managers, it would open doors for more ethnocentrism & cultural bias because of the organizational value i.e. Greediness being advanced. The company should reconsider rewards & incentives being given to employees because it has been notified in case such as the 2008 housing crises & exploding Ford Pinto Debacle.  

The two ethical theories includes Utilitarian ethical theory & Josephson’s Core Values Model. The utilitarian theory emphasizes on creating happy life for group or individual yielding the results which tends to be in-line with common sense. The needs of employees should be satisfied while encouraging them to act according to what company had wished as long as the essential advantage would be to the benefit of organization. The utility of each individual should be maximized by increasing wages, thus improving the well-being of employees (Sen A. , 1979). Josephson’s Core Values Model should be used for providing reliable guidance as to what are moral decisions & ethical action. The management team should conduct meeting with employees, taking feedback from them & discussing problem they are facing. Afterwards, the management should responsibly resolve their issues & supporting them to maintain their moral. Not only this, the management should arrange training sessions on how to work in new atmosphere & environment. A value-based decision for making significant decisions have required in informed & timely manner for avoiding emerging issues (Making ethical decisions , 2017)..........


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