Diagnosis Of Cardiovascular Disease Harvard Case Solution & Analysis

Diagnosis Of Cardiovascular Disease Case Study Analysis

CT Scan:

The risk of cardiovascular stratification through computed tomography is known to be carried oursthrough the detection and quantification of calcified atherosclerosis plaque. It is considered to be highly sensitive in the imaging calcification. CT scan is one of the well-established the coronary arteries calcification is the specific maker for atherosclerotic CAD and is not present in the normal wall of the arterial vessel. The direct imaging of the calcified plaque tends to serve as the atherosclerotic disease marker,which is studied at an extensive level with computed tomography of the electronic beam and now with computed tomography of multislice. (Tarun K Mittal, 2006 )

The use of this test is mainly based on the notion to check the problems related to the heart. In a cardiac CT scan, the patient lies on a table inside the doughout-shaped machine. The tube of x-ray inside the machine makes a rotation around your body and then the collection of the images of the chest and heart takes place.

Scientific principles of both CT and MRI:

Considering the current studies, technical improvements and advances in cardiac MRI – Magnetic Resonance Imaging and CT –Computed Tomography have significantly provoked the increased interest in the clinical use of these techniques for patients suffering from CAD – Coronary Artery Disease. This kind of primary diagnosis of Coronary artery disease using MRI and CT tend to utilize different strategic approaches, such as: detection of a reduced coronary perfusion reserve, imaging coronary artery stenosis, and detection of coronary calcification. (Konstantin Nikolaou, 2010 )

Both MRI and CT tend to serve as the most accurate tools that are utilized in accessing the structure and pumping function of the heart as well as the structure of the large vessels i.e. pulmonary and aorta. (Raymond Y. Kwong & E. Kent Yucel, 2003)Furthermore, cardiac magnetic resonance is known for the provision of unique characteristics of tissues andsignificantly demonstrates the prognostic and diagnostic data in various kinds of heart disease. (Michael Salerno, 2009)But the cardiac imaging modality is primarily dependent on the indication, characteristics of an individual patient and local accessibility. (Michael Benjamin Stokes, 2017 )

MRI and CT scanners significantly allow the physicians to slice the brain of a living patient without opening the skull. In this manner, doctors uphold the ability to visualize the reason behind the occurrence of brain abnormalities symptoms in the patient. The visualization of the body details through CT scan is by images of X-rays in thin body slices. Whereas the MRI scanners utilize a strong magnet for the achievement of a similar effect demonstrated by the CT scanner. Considering the fact that CT scan tends to hold the benefits i.e. it requires less time inside the machine which is approximately a few seconds or minutes in order to perform the CT scan. While in comparison, MRI scans require approximately 20 minutes for the completion of the scanning process. On the other hand, CT scan results are represented as the easy way of identifying the bones and theirfractures. (J., 2017)

CT Scan:

The revolutionary development of the 1970s – CT scan mainly utilizes ionizing radiations that are coupled with an electronic detector array for recording the densities pattern and creation ofan image of tissue cut.The higher the x-ray beam attenuation, the brighter the CT images of tissues. Similarly, the lower the x-ray beam attenuation, the darker the CT images of tissues. Thus, the calcification and bone that attenuate the beam of x-ray are white. Focal or regional deviation from the normal appearance of CT is represented as either decreased i.e. blacker or increased i.e. whiter density or attenuation.


Unlike a CT scan, MRI lacks the use of ionizing radiation. As the MRI tend to be different from the CT scan. MRI is primarily based on the emission and absorption of the radiowaves from the protons of the tissues as a result of their exposure to a strong magnetic field. The contrast of the tissue image is the relative signal intensity of MR i.e. the variationsamong the adjacent anatomic structures. Changes in the normal MR appearance is mainly represented as the decreased signal illustratesto bedarker and increased signal illustratesto be whitish. The relative contrast of the tissues is mainly larger on the images of MR in comparison to that of CT images. The contrast media of Intravenous MRI tends to be used for enhancing the difference of contrast between the pathologic and normal tissue.(Karen S. Caldemeyer, 1999)


The cardiac MRI technique is a specialized one which the provision of limited access. In Australia, cardiac MRI is mainly requested with the requirement of additive information to perform other tests. One of the current indicationsmainly involves the assessment fo the bicuspid aortic valve disease, congenital heart disease,and cardiac mass. MR imaging is considered as the useful technique for the detection and monitoring of the bicuspid aortic valve disease in association with aortopathy; in the detection of the existence ofaortic coarctationand to quantify the aortic regurgitation severity through the measurement of the regurgitant volumes. In comparison, the repeated CT radiation exposure is primarily avoided by the cardiac MRI which mainly requires interval studies. (Michael Benjamin Stokes, 2017 )

There are a number of advantages of using MRI technique over CT which mainly includes imaging speed, no use of ionization radiation, the capability of identification of tissue characteristics and potential of obtaining information on various nuclei,which allows access to novel techniques to the assessment of microstructure and lung function. In contradiction, the techniques based on contrast-enhanced CT significantly allows the assessment of lung perfusion and vasculature.(Edwin JR van Beek, 2008)


The occurrence of cardiovascular disease is mainly associated with changes in the function of the heart and blood vessels. The incidence of such diseases is mainly associated with the probability of leading to other medical condition such as diabetes, hypertension and others. The variation in the symptom of the disease depends on the medical condition of the patient and his or her past history,which greatly influences the risk the disease severity. Thus, the diagnosis tests tests you'll have to analyze your coronary illness rely upon what condition your primary care physician figures you may have.Women are expected to be more likely to suffer from breath shortness, back or jaw pain, vomiting, and nausea. But, in contradiction, men are more likely to be affected by cardiovascular diseases. The disease can be prevented through the improvement in lifestyles such as increased physical activity, weight loss in case obesity and a healthy diet. Considering the diagnosis, MRI scans require approximately 20 minutes for the completion of the scanning process. On the other hand, CT scan results are represented as the easy way of identifying the bones and their fractures. Similarly, the treatment of high blood lipids, hypertension, diabetes through the drug is considered as an important factor in order to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and prevention of heart strokes and heartattacks..................................


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