MARXISM IN CHINA Harvard Case Solution & Analysis

MARXISM IN CHINA Case Study Solution

Economic necessity

Over the period of time, the community wealth has been concentering in the hands of the people like capitalist and industrialist. These industrialist and capitalist were the owner of the production means, with the help of the production means, they tend to exploit workers by giving them no share of profits and low wages. This in turn have resulted in amass huge wealth. They most likely gave created another wealth, due to this they have gotten richer day by day, whereas the workers did not get anything and gotten poorer with the passage of time.

In addition to this, the Marxism has proposed an aim of bringing a classless society, in doing so, it had been required that proletariat would have seized all capitalist property, not only this, all inheritance rights would be abolished. In this ruling system, the labour charges would be given on the basis of their work and ability.

Marx has been wishing to end the capitalism because by doing so there would only one class i.e. proletariat. This class would live according to their own priority and ideas, the one class refers to no class in nation, also a classless society. China have needed Marxism in respect to become a perfect communist society.

The nation needed an institution for protecting the minority’s interest such as capitalist, this exploits the majority class. When the system of class came into existence, the conflicts have started between different social classes, the powerful and wealthy class have been exploiting the poor, weak and helpless by resorting to the institution of state.

As a matter of fact, Marx has identified the importance of Marxism ideology for the purpose of undertaking the fullest development of the new productive force, it has geared up the process of production and technological development in order to meet the social needs and not increasing private profits.

In addition to this, the class inequality has also been reduced by adapting Marxism ideology, it has highly influencing developing communism society on the basis of abolishing inequity between different classes, additionally Marxism has been influenced by the social change perspective carried by Marx which would made possible through class conflict between exploited class and exploiters class, for their liberty and freedom, the class of workers have needed a revolution within society.

Another important factor highlighted by Marx in the consideration of lasting influential impact on the society because the relation of production have given rise to the ideology and thoughts in the society.  Marx has been propagating the ideas and thoughts in order to reduce the working class difficulties to some extent such as their living and working conditions and low wages. They could be encouraged by paying them enough profit share in order to make them productive and to benefit the nation economy as a whole.

Factually speaking, it has been said by Marx that the man’s survival highly depends upon his efficiency in the material things production, since the most significant human activities is the production. The society also comes into existence for the sake of the production in economy. A perfect society is one that satisfied its members by providing necessities of life.

Class Struggle Concept

In Marx Theory, the structure of class has been depending on the society production forces. The superstructure components and society culture is utilized by the dominant class to hold another class in subjection, but it can be said that the every stage of society history, the cultural aspects and class structure have been suitable to prevail production forces, the reason could be the changing technology in the production method.

The owners of the production instruments have been intending to maximize their benefits, for this, they have improved or changed their production techniques. Therefore, they have not understand that they have been destroying the basis upon which the production system is resting. Shortly speaking, they have been acting on the basis of the argument that is;

“The production forces most likely come into conflict with the production relations”

(Harmon: 1964, 397)

Surplus Value Concept

Marx raised his point by emphasizing on the important of labor as the inevitable element of production which is accountable to produces value. If a worker works at an average of 30 hours per week to meet the value of needs, he would not produce surplus value. In capitalist system, the worker has been made in order to work to him greatest ability or capacity and what he is given is subsistence wages at the market rate. So, he only get what he had produced in the shape of wages. In short, he had explained that within the capitalist production system, the working class is most likely exploited.

Factually, he also raised the significant point i.e. class war and class struggle. It has been originated from the Dialectical, surplus value and historical materialistic theories of Marx. He said that in the human society history, there been continual struggle or war between two classes. Each and every society has included two classes having antagonism and hatred against each other, for instance; the landless is exploited by landowners and the workers are exploited by owners of company.

In the philosophy being proposed by Marx, the major fundamentals including materialism, value and labor have identified as the basic things, not only this, he had also explained maintaining the labor of the workers needs to be honored them with its due returns. It has been also remarked by him that the progress of society is highly dependent on the help provided by workers’ labor.

Thus, it is significant for the country to give labor share in form of wages for the purpose of maintaining their cost and expenses on shelter, food, education or children and clothing etc. By doing so, the worker along with their families would become happy. It has been contemplated for the sake of providing enough comfort to their families since, workers are entitled putting labor in the production system.

Therefore, as a matter of fact, workers are less likely benefitting by their labors. Despite of it, the real profit of the labor of workers has been achieved by the capitalist. This in turn, the class of workers is most likely exploited by the capitalist class. Here, due to this, the economic inequality starts in the society. This in turn, would rise the conflict in class. For the sake of abolishing the economic inequality, the revolution is anticipated by society. The atmosphere of revolution and conflict can be ended in case of establishing an ideal society on the basis of communism.

Moreover, the Marxism ideology has been influenced by the concept of surplus value, where the production elements are equally important, these are the creator of commodity’s value amongst all four production elements.  The only variable element is labor which produces value in the community or society. For the commodity production, a labour is required. Labor should be employed from the beginning of the production process. For instance; the production of raw material critically requires labour, labor is also employed in the energy sources such as oil, gas and coals etc.

The value being produced by the labor would be divided into broad categories including; wages that is paid to them and secondly it is surplus labor or value of extra labor which is not being paid to them but this amount is received by capitalist becoming the part of their profit. It is supposed to be the sheer worker exploitation, the surplus value is the part of the labour of workers, due to this, Marx have raised the point of overthrowing the system of capitalist within a society, by doing so there have been a socialization of the production means in the socialist system, also the laborer exploitation in terms of their extra labour have come into end. The exact labor value have been giving to them and some part of the value have been used for the common services in order to benefit the worker.

Also, the globalization and socialism have influenced the Marxism to be implemented in society in order grow China’s economy because if the worker are not being exploited and they are given equal profit return for their relentless efforts based on their contribution, also if labors own the means of production, allocation is being decided by the central plan, production factors are valued for the usefulness to people and the worker not able to work are getting enough to meet their basic needs, the system would most likely eliminates poverty, thereby economy would be growing and developing as well.

Personalities of Chinese leaders

One of the core issue with the Marxism study have been orthodoxy, as there are many thinkers who have to discuss philosophy identical to Ten Commandments. This could result in Marxism ossification. As a creative and original thinker, Mao has been bold enough in applying the Marxism theory flexibly to the real conditions of China and he also argued that the political changes’ leading forces in China would not the proletariat, but peasantry. His forethought gave win the extensive CPC support amongst the masses and also facilitated the success of party.........


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