Human Development Harvard Case Solution & Analysis

Human Development Case Study Solution

There are various studies which have been done to examine how “Human Development” is a process on how the human develops their behavior, thinking, decision making and attitude. Most of the factors which affects human development that are discussed by many of the theorist are families, friends, education, environment, household characteristics, workplace and other factors.

Sigmund Freud Theory:

Sigmund Freud was one the known Neurologist who was the first to work on human development and personality. He conducted experiments and did various observation as to how the Human develops its personality. Freud came to an understanding that the things which effect the most on human personality are Id, Ego and Super Ego.

  • ID is one of our largest part of the mind which lies on the subconscious region in which it desires to get everything in need.
  • Ego is the conscious part of the mind on which protects the person from doing negative actions as the mind seeks satisfaction and to avoid pain.
  • Super Ego is part of the person’s conscious part in which the rules are developed from the close member such as from families and friends at phallic stage. As the part of mind of super ego restricts a person from doing something wrong that would harm itself and the society.

He explained as to how the human goes to various stages for developing its personality and lifestyle. The five stages developed by Freud for human personality are; Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency and genital stages.

  • Oral Stage is an infant stage from the age of 0 – 1 in which the child’s oral need must be met or else it will create bad habits.
  • Anal Stage is the age of 1 – 3 years old in which the child starts to crawl and must be given proper training for toilet usage.
  • Phallic stage is of the age of 3 – 6 years old in which the child starts going to school and must be educated for it to enhance its personality. At the same time it should be scolded or punished for doing mischief.
  • Latency is the age of 6 -12 years old in which the child starts to look after his/her parent’s personality.
  • Genital Stagesis the age after 12+ in which it starts getting the feeling to belong or to be loved, starts developing on what to achieve.

Eric Erikson’s Theory on Human Development:

Eric Erikson one of the famous Psychologist who was very much fond of Sigmund Freud theory and further continued to work on his theory on human personalities. He did various studies on understanding what factors have effects on the human development. As Freud theory focused on the person’s mind such as ID, Ego and superego, Erikson theory was mostly based on the cultural and society impact on the human development.

Eric Erikson came up with 8 stages that effects the process of human development. These stages are of the following:

  1. Trust vs Mistrust
  2. Autonomy vs Shame
  3. Initiative vs Guilt
  4. Industry vs Inferiority
  5. Ego Identity vs Role Confusion
  6. Intimacy vs Isolation
  7. Generativity vs stagnation
  8. Ego Integrity vs despair
  • Trust vs Mistrust: It is the infant stage where it starts to create trust among its parents if properly nurtured or would create mistrust.
  • Autonomy vs Shame: The age when a child start exploring and starts to feel some emotions such as happy and shame.
  • Initiative vs Guilt: The child starts going to school at this age and starts to be a bit initiative as in independent among its parents.
  • Industry vs Inferiority: At the early school years, the child starts goes through independence who want to be getting praised for developing its self-confidence or if a child fails it will start feeling inferior.
  • Ego Identity vs Role Confusion: At this age the child starts creating its identity as in its starts making its life goal, purpose and what to achieve. If the child is unsure on what to do with his life made lead to role confusion.
  • Intimacy vs Isolation: This is the age of 20 – 24 where a person starts to create affection emotion in which it wants to get married and to be loved. Failure to create this emotion can lead to person’s Isolation.
  • Generativity vs Stagnation: This is stage where the person has become a parent and they want to be a guidance for their children for supporting them in their future.
  • Ego integrity vs Despair: At this stage the person is old and reflects upon his entire life as what he has achieved and was he/she able to fulfill its future. If it had been able to achieve its future would lead to satisfactory or else it would lead to despair....................

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