A Descriptive study of Preventionof Incarceration of African American Males through non-profit options Harvard Case Solution & Analysis


Mass incarceration of African American males is a well-developed subject and a problem African Americans faces.Accordingto (ACLU, 2006`)low education and low income among black men is the primary cause for inequitable operation of the criminal justice system in general, and discrimination as it is evident in the enforcement strategies in the war on drugs.

(Alexander, The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness., 2010)indicated that the proportion of inmates identified as Hispanic or black in both private and public prisons in nine states. The study clearly shows that there are a high number of people of color in private prisons as compared to public prisons in the same nine states. California has the highest rate at 13 percent while Arizona has the minimum at three percent. Another study by (Alexander, The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age oF colorblindness., 2013), the high disparity shown casts doubt on cost-efficiency as claimed by the private facilities and also portrays the prison industry and shows how the major non-color sensitive policies negatively affects the people of color.

In addition, (Blalock, 1967)defines the War on Drugs as the anti-drug policies and law enforcement practices enacted in 1982 by the Reagan Administration. Nunn continues by defining the War on Drugs as having 3 distinct periods initiated in 1914 by the passage of Harrison Act of 1914, continued by the Nixon Administration in 1960, and followed up by the Bush and Clinton Administrations.

A Descriptive study of Preventionof Incarceration of African American Males through non-profit options Harvard Case Solution & Analysis

Moreover, the war on drugs in the United States according to Morris (2016) has been the answer to criminalization of drug use and has resulted in the government spending billions of dollars to enforce and eradicate the demand and supply of drugs and incarcerate drug users. Although African Americans represent a small portion of drug users in the United States, they have a much higher representation of those in prison for drug useleading to such action of incarceration. According to ((Bonczar, 2003)), African Americans represent less than 12% of drug users, 34% of which are detained for drug offenses a whole another 45% of them are incarcerated for drug offenses (The changing racial dynamics of the war on drugs, 2009). Despite the fact that few African American young people are expected to use drugs compared to young whites.

According to this law, a quantity ratio of 100:1 between the amount of crack and powder cocaine would automatically triggermandatory minimum sentences for drug trafficking, as well as it created a fixed minimum punishmentfor possession of crack cocaine.(Blumstein, 2009)As a result, those who were found to use, or deal crackreceived stricter penalties than those using and dealing powder cocaine.

According to ((Braman, Doing time on the outside: Incarceration andfamily life in urban America., 2004)), the male AfricanAmerican incarceration now constitutes about 1 million of the 203 million incarcerated population in USA. Although such makes small part of 13.2% of the total US population, however, it represents the higher rate of incarcerationas compared to white male counterparts.Anotherreport () suggests that in 2014, the African Americans and Hispanics constitute 61% of the overall prisoner rate in 2014, albeit it constitute only 1 quarter of the overall USA....................

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